Recent developments in neuroscience have made a more intensive cooperation with psychotherapy possible. Numerous experimental studies cast a new light on psychotherapeutic models and techniques. Aspects such as school specific thera- py techniques have been demonstrated to be less important than was commonly held. In contrast the quality of the therapeutic relationship could be identified as an effective variable in the therapeutic process. However, can neuroscience help with understanding the how and why of the therapeutic relationship and therapeutic processes. In terms of synergetics, the brain can be interpreted as a self-organiz- ing system whose operating mode follows the primate of self regulating action. A central task of the therapeutic relationship lies in the creation of a stable, secure framework, which allows instabilities in the “human system” for constructing new equilibrium conditions. The presentation explained brain functions for regulating and organizing homeostasis, emotion, stress and pain. From the theory of syn- ergetics and the results of psychotherapy research, conditions for the formation of self-organizational processes can be inferred. A better understanding of brain functions can support us in this project.